urql is a highly customizable and flexible GraphQL client, that happens to come with some default core behavior in the core package.

By default, urql aims to provide the minimal amount of features that allow us to build an app quickly. However, urql has also been designed to be a GraphQL Client that grows with our usage and demands. As we go from building our smallest or first GraphQL apps to utilising its full functionality, we have tools at our disposal to extend and customize urql to our liking.

Using GraphQL Clients

You may have worked with a GraphQL API previously and noticed that using GraphQL in your app can be as straightforward as sending a plain HTTP request with your query to fetch some data.

GraphQL also provides an opportunity to abstract away a lot of the manual work that goes with sending these queries and managing the data. Ultimately, this lets you focus on building your app without having to handle the technical details of state management in detail.

Specifically, urql simplifies three common aspects of using GraphQL:

  • Sending queries and mutations and receiving results declaratively
  • Abstracting caching and state management internally
  • Providing a central point of extensibility and integration with your API

In the following sections we'll talk about the way that urql solves these three problems and how the logic abstracted away internally.

Requests and Operations on the Client

If urql was a train it would take several stops to arrive at its terminus, our API. It starts with us defining queries or mutations. Any GraphQL request can be abstracted into their query documents and their variables. In urql, these GraphQL requests are treated as unique objects, which are uniquely identified by the query document and variables (which is why a key is generated from the two). This key is a hash number of the query document and variables and uniquely identifies our GraphQLRequest.

Whenever we decide to send a request to our API we start by using urql's Client. It accepts several options like url or requestPolicy which are extra information on how the GraphQL requests are executed.

import { Client } from '@urql/core';
new Client({
url: '/graphql',
requestPolicy: 'cache-first',

The bindings that we've seen in the "Basics" section interact with the Client directly and are a thin abstraction on top of it. Though some methods can be called on it directly, as seen on the "Core Usage" page.

When we send our queries or mutations to the Client, internally they will be managed as Operations.. An "Operation" is an extension of GraphQLRequests. Not only do they carry the query, variables, and a key property, they will also identify the kind of operation that is executed, like "query" or "mutation". We can also find the Client's options on operation.context which carries an operation's metadata.

Operations and Results

It's the Clients responsibility to accept an Operation and execute it. The bindings internally call the client.executeQuery, client.executeMutation, or client.executeSubscription methods, and we'll get a "stream" of results. This "stream" allows us to register a callback with it to receive results.

In the diagram we can see that each operation is a signal for our request to start at which point we can expect to receive our results eventually on a callback. Once we're not interested in results anymore a special "teardown" signal is issued on the Client. While we don't see operations outside the Client, they're what travel through the "Exchanges" on the Client.

The Client and Exchanges

To reiterate, when we use urql's bindings for our framework of choice, methods are called on the Client, but we never see the operations that are created in the background from our bindings. We call a method like client.executeQuery (or it's called for us in the bindings), an operation is issued internally when we subscribe with a callback, and later our callback is called with results.

Operations stream and results stream

While we know that, for us, we're only interested in a single Operation and its OperationResults at a time, the Client treats these as one big stream. The Client sees an incoming flow of all of our operations.

As we've learned before, each operation carries a key and each result we receive carries the original operation. Because an OperationResult also carries an operation property the Client will always know which results correspond to an individual operation. However, internally, all of our operations are processed at the same time concurrently. However, from our perspective:

  • We subscribe to a "stream" and expect to get results on a callback
  • The Client issues the operation, and we'll receive some results back eventually as either the cache responds (synchronously), or the request gets sent to our API.
  • We eventually unsubscribe, and the Client issues a "teardown" operation with the same key as the original operation, which concludes our flow.

The Client itself doesn't actually know what to do with operations. Instead, it sends them through "exchanges". Exchanges are akin to middleware in Redux and have access to all operations and all results. Multiple exchanges are chained to process our operations and to execute logic on them, one of them being the fetchExchange, which as the name implies sends our requests to our API.

How operations get to exchanges

We now know how we get to operations and to the Client:

  • Any bindings or calls to the Client create an operation
  • This operation identifies itself as either a "query", "mutation" or "subscription" and has a unique key.
  • This operation is sent into the exchanges and eventually ends up at the fetchExchange (or a similar exchange)
  • The operation is sent to the API and a result comes back, which is wrapped in an OperationResult
  • The Client filters the OperationResult by the operation.key and — via a callback — gives us a stream of results.

To come back to our train analogy from earlier, an operation, like a train, travels from one end of the track to the terminus — our API. The results then come back on the same path as they're just travelling the same line in reverse.

The Exchanges

The default set of exchanges that @urql/core contains and applies to a Client are:

  • dedupExchange: Deduplicates pending operations (pending = waiting for a result)
  • cacheExchange: The default caching logic with "Document Caching"
  • fetchExchange: Sends an operation to the API using fetch and adds results to the output stream

When we don't pass the exchanges option manually to our Client then these are the ones that will be applied. As we can see, an exchange exerts a lot of power over our operations and results. They determine a lot of the logic of the Client, taking care of things like deduplication, caching, and sending requests to our API.

Some of the exchanges that are available to us are:

We can even swap out our document cache, which is implemented by @urql/core's cacheExchange, with urql's normalized cache, Graphcache.

Read more about exchanges and how to write them from scratch on the "Authoring Exchanges" page.

Stream Patterns in urql

In the previous sections we've learned a lot about how the Client works, but we've always learned it in vague terms — for instance, we've learned that we get a "stream of results" or urql sees all operations as "one stream of operations" that it sends to the exchanges. But, what are streams?

Generally we refer to streams as abstractions that allow us to program with asynchronous events over time. Within the context of JavaScript we're specifically thinking in terms of Observables and Reactive Programming with Observables. These concepts may sound initimidating, but from a high-level view what we're talking about can be thought of as a combination of promises and iterables (e.g. arrays). We're dealing with multiple events, but our callback is called over time. It's like calling forEach on an array but expecting the results to come in asynchronously.

As a user, if we're using the one framework bindings that we've seen in the "Basics" section, we may never see these streams in action or may never use them even, since the bindings internally use them for us. But if we use the Client directly or write exchanges then we'll see streams and will have to deal with their API.

The Wonka library

urql utilises the Wonka library for its streams. It has a few advantages that are specifically tailored for the urql library and ecosystem:

  • It is extremely lightweight and treeshakeable, with a size of around 3.7kB minzipped.
  • It's cross-platform and cross-language compatible, having been written in Reason and provides support for Flow and TypeScript.
  • It's a predictable and iterable toolchain, emitting synchronous events whenever possible.

Typical usage of Wonka will involve creating a source of some values and a sink.

import { fromArray, map, subscribe, pipe } from 'wonka';
const { unsubscribe } = pipe(
fromArray([1, 2, 3]),
map(x => x * 2),
subscribe(x => {
console.log(x); // 2, 4, 6

In Wonka, like with Observables, streams are cancellable by calling the unsubscribe method that a subscription returns.

Read more about Wonka in its documentation.

Stream patterns with the client

When we call methods on the Client like client.executeQuery or client.query then these will return a Wonka stream. Those are essentially just a bunch of callbacks.

We can use wonka's subscribe function to start this stream. We pass this function a callback and will receive results back from the Client, as it starts our operation. When we unsubscribe then the Client will stop this operation by sending a special "teardown" operation to our exchanges.

import { pipe, subscribe } from 'wonka';
const QUERY = `
query Test($id: ID!) {
getUser(id: $id) {
const { unsubscribe } = pipe(
client.query(QUERY, { id: 'test' }),
subscribe(result => {
console.log(result); // { data: ... }

Read more about the available APIs on the Client in the Core API docs.